A recent publication in the prestigious scientific journal “Nature” (read article) by CANSEARCH-supported researchers examines variations in the GSTA1 gene by patient ethnicity and their impact on the metabolism of a drug, Busulfan, used prior to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of childhood leukaemia. The results of the study confirmed that there is a significant difference in the distribution of these important GSTA1 gene variations among human populations in Africa, South and East Asia, Europe and America. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that all patients, regardless of ethnicity, should be accurately genotyped for GSTA1 variations prior to Busulfan administration to optimise treatment outcome.